ExpressionEngine® 3 User Guide

Legacy Documentation

You are using the documentation for version 3.5.13. Go here for the latest version or check here for your available upgrades to ExpressionEngine 4.

Building a Simple News Site from Start to Finish

This guide will introduce you to the basic concepts behind ExpressionEngine. We’ll create a simple two-page site with a news section to show a glimpse of the power, flexibility and level of control over your markup that ExpressionEngine offers over other systems.

Before You Begin

Note

ExpressionEngine assumes that you are comfortable with basic HTML.

If you have not installed ExpressionEngine yet, please do so now.

The Control Panel

Upon completing the installation, you will land on your Control Panel login page. Login to the control panel (also known as the “back end”) using the same username and password you provided during installation. If you don’t remember your Control Panel link, it’s usually similar to: http://example.com/admin.php

After logging in, you’ll be greeted by the Control Panel Overview page:

Control Panel Home

There isn’t a lot to overview, as you have no entries, no comments and no content. Your site doesn’t even have a name yet. Let’s fix that. Click in the ‘Name your site’ field at the top left of your screen and let’s go add some general settings.

General Settings

On the General Settings page, give your site a descriptive name and set your default localization values. To access this page in the future, just click the Settings cog in the top right corner.

Now it’s time to add some content. To do that, we first need to create a channel.

Click the Developer Tools icon in the top right corner and select Channel Manager.

Control Panel Home

Channels

ExpressionEngine stores all of your information inside Channels. A Channel is simply a container that can be as simple or as complex as you need it to be, depending on your content. You can have as many Channels as you need, each with a different structure tailored to the content it holds.

For our new News site, we’ll want a channel to hold our news articles.

Creating a Channel

  1. Click the Create Channel button or the New button to open up the Create Channel form.
  2. Name our new channel “News”.
  3. ExpressionEngine will automatically provide a sensible Short Name for you, in this case, “news”.
Channels Page
  1. For now, we don’t have any field or category groups to assign to our channel, so save your new channel clicking Save Channel and we’ll go create some.

Tip

A Channel’s Full Name should be a friendly, human-readable name. The Short Name, on the other hand, is how you’ll refer to this Channel in your actual code. Don’t worry, we’ll get to that later.

Channel Fields

We have our News Channel, but we haven’t given it any structure to hold our content yet. Channel Fields let us do just that. There are many types of fields, and a Channel can hold any number of Channel Fields.

First, we need to create a Channel Field Group to hold our Channel Fields. Why is this? Simply put, Channel Field Groups make it easy to organize and re-use a particular set of Channel Fields. We’ll discuss groups further in a bit.

Creating a Channel Field Group

  1. Click NEW next to the Field Groups link in the left navigation to go directly to the Create Field Group form.
  2. Let’s be startlingly creative and name this group “News”.
  3. Click Save Field Group your new field group.

You should see your new Channel Field Group:

Channel Field Groups Page

For our simple news section, let’s create a Rich Text field to hold the content, or “body”, of each news article.

Creating a Field

  1. Click the Fields button for your News group.
  2. Click the Create New button to open up the Create Field form.
  3. For Type, choose Rich Text Editor. (Notice the other available types - exciting, no? Add-ons can even provide completely new types of fields.)
  4. For Name, type “News Body”.
  5. ExpressionEngine will automatically provide a sensible Short Name for you, in this case, “news_body”.
  6. Let’s require our field, include it in our searchable fields and leave the rest of the settings at their defaults.
Channel Fields Page
  1. Save your new field.

Channel Group Assignments

Even though we’ve created our News Channel, as well as our News Fields Group, we haven’t explicitly linked the two together yet. Let’s do that now.

  1. Go back to the Channels by clicking the link in the left navigation. Click on your News channel.
  2. Set Custom field group to “News Fields”.
  3. Leave Category groups set to “None”.
  4. Save your your edits and you’re ready to start adding content.

As you’ve just seen, every Channel can have three types of Groups assigned to it. Let’s go over each one in a bit more detail.

Category Group

Categories are a nice way to better organize all of your content in each Channel. While we aren’t creating any Categories for the purposes of this guide, know that they are a very powerful feature with full hierarchy support and more. See the Categories section for more information.

Status Group

Statuses are typically used to control whether or not (or to whom) a piece of content will appear on your site. In this guide we’ve stuck with ExpressionEngine’s default Status Group, which contains two Statuses: Open and Closed. By default, content with an “Open” status will be shown, while content that is “Closed” will not appear at all. There are other creative uses for Statuses, especially when it comes to editorial workflows. See the Statuses section for more information.

Channel Field Group

Channel Fields are the core of ExpressionEngine’s content management abilities. They allow the system to fit to your content, instead of the other way around.

Why Groups?

As you’ve probably noticed, Categories, Statuses and Channel Fields are all contained within groups. This allows for easy re-use without duplicating effort. For example, if in the future we create a new Channel, but decide that it will use similar Categories, Statuses or Channel Fields, we can simply assign the already-existing group(s) to the new Channel.

Publishing Entries

Now that we’ve set up a basic, solid structure, let’s add some content!

In ExpressionEngine, each time you add content to a Channel you are publishing to that Channel and creating a new Entry in it. You can think of Entries as being synonymous with posts, but the term Entry better encompasses all of the different types of data you can store in ExpressionEngine.

  1. Click the Create button in the top left corner and select the News channel to publish in. This will open up your publish form, custom built based on the fields, statuses and categories you have assigned to your channel.
  2. For the Title, type “What to do this Weekend?”. Notice that we did not have to create this field ourselves - all Entries automatically have a Title field. You can change the label of this field by editing your News channel.
  3. ExpressionEngine provides a sensible URL Title for you. This is another automatic field that allows your entries to be easily linked to via a URL. See URL Structure for more information.
  4. Enter some text in the News Body field. Make it good!
Publish Page
  1. Click Publish to publish the Entry.

Upon submitting, you’ll be taken to the Edit screen, which displays all of your entries in a filterable table:

View Entry Page

From here you could edit the Entry to make any necessary corrections, or navigate to another area of the Control Panel.

For the purposes of this guide, publish a second Entry by following the same steps as before, but with a different Title and News Body. That will give us two Entries to work with later.

Templates

You’ve probably noticed that even though we’ve entered some content in the Control Panel, our site’s actual homepage remains woefully blank! Fear not - we just haven’t told ExpressionEngine how to display our content. That’s where Templates come in.

Templates control what gets shown to the outside world (also known as the site’s “front end”) and are grouped together into (you guessed it!) Template Groups. As usual, you can have as many Templates and Groups as you need. Templates are very important because by default, they define the URL structure of your site. Here’s how Template Groups and Templates make up an ExpressionEngine URL:

http://example.com/template_group/template_name

Every Template Group has at least one Template named index, which acts as the default if no other Template is specified. For example, if we create a new Template Group named news, you can access its index template using just:

http://example.com/news

Creating a Template

Let’s create our first Template, which will be a simple news page that displays Entries from our News Channel.

  1. Click on Developer Tools in the top right and select Template Manager.
  2. Click the NEW button by Template Groups in the left navigation.
  3. For Template Group Name, type “news”.
  4. Check the box next to Make the index template in this group your site’s home page?
  5. Click Save Template Group.

As expected, this automatically creates an index Template in our new news Group:

Template Manager

Now let’s get some content in there!

Editing a Template

Click on the index Template to open it in the Template Editor. You’ll be greeted, unsurprisingly, with a blank slate. Let’s add some skeleton HTML:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
        <title>What's New</title>
        <meta charset="utf-8">
</head>
<body>
        <h1>All the news that's fit to pixelize.</h1>
</body>
</html>
Template Edit

Click Save Template to save our changes and stay on the page (Save & Finish Editing will return you to the Template Manager). Then click the View Rendered button in the upper-right, which should open the page in a new browser tab. It may not be very exciting, but it’s something:

Template with Static Content

Tip

You’re not confined to editing your markup inside ExpressionEngine’s Template Editor. You can enable Saving Templates as Text Files and then work with Template files using any editor you choose.

“This is all well and good,” you might be saying. “ExpressionEngine is outputting my markup exactly as entered; no more or less, which is awesome. But it’s still not showing any of the content I entered into the News Channel!”

Strap yourself in, because we’re about to do just that, and we’re going to do it using the core of ExpressionEngine’s flexibility: Tags.

Tags

Tags fetch the content you’ve entered into ExpressionEngine and display it in your Templates just the way you want. Here’s how a typical Tag starts:

{exp:channel:entries}

This tag, like most, has three segments: exp, channel, and entries.

  1. exp simply tells ExpressionEngine that this is a Tag. All Tags will begin with this.
  2. channel refers to the Module we want to use to fetch our data. ExpressionEngine is made up of various Modules, and each provides its own Tags. The Channel is used to fetch data from your Channels, and is the most commonly used Module in ExpressionEngine.
  3. entries refers to the type of data we want the Module to fetch, or in some cases, the action we want the Module to take. In this case, we’re telling the Channel Module that we want to retrieve our Entries.

Parameters

We often need to give more information to a Module about what we want it to do. In our example above, for instance, we still need to tell the Channel Module which Channel we want to fetch Entries from. This is easily done with parameters:

{exp:channel:entries channel="news"}

You can specify multiple parameters, too:

{exp:channel:entries channel="news" limit="10"}

This tells the Channel Module that we want the 10 most recent Entries from the Channel named News. Simple enough, right? Now that we’ve told it what to fetch, let’s actually use that data!

Tip

Here’s the full list of available parameters for the Channel Entries Tag.

Variables

Variables are the actual pieces of information that ExpressionEngine retrieves and makes available to us. To get some content from an Entry, for example, use the Short Name of the Channel Field. Remember the News Body field we created earlier? You can get its contents like so:

{news_body}

And the Title of the Entry is easily accessed with:

{title}

There is also a lot of additional information about each Entry, such as when it was submitted, who it was submitted by, and much more. For example, to get the author of an Entry:

{author}

Now, we’re ready to use this Tag in our Template.

Tip

Here’s the full list of available variables for the Channel Entries Tag.

Putting it All Together

Switch back to the Template Editor tab in your browser and update the Template with the following code:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
        <title>What's New</title>
        <meta charset="utf-8">
</head>
<body>
        <h1>All the news that's fit to pixelize.</h1>

        {exp:channel:entries channel="news" limit="10"}
                <h2>{title}</h2>
                <p>By {author}</p>

                {news_body}
        {/exp:channel:entries}
</body>
</html>

After clicking Update, switch back over to the browser tab with the “Rendered Template” on it and hit Refresh. By default, the Channel Module sorts your Entries by newest to oldest, so you should now see your two previously-created Entries in all their glory:

Template with Dynamic Content

The More You Know

You’ve seen how to show the content you want, and how wrap it in any HTML you’d like, and you’re well on your way to unleashing awesome across the (digital) land. But first, let’s go over a few points about what we just did.

Tag Pairs vs. Single Tags

Did you notice the {/exp:channel:entries} line in the code above? It’s called a closing tag, and it is required in order to close the opening {exp:channel:entries} Tag, in much the same way that closing certain HTML elements is required.

Most Tags in ExpressionEngine have both an opening and a closing Tag. We refer to them as Tag Pairs to differentiate them from Single Tags. Single Tags are just an opening Tag - no closing Tag or variables inside. These are more rare and are typically used by some Modules to display a single piece of information.

Looping Tag Pairs

The {exp:channel:entries} Tag that we’ve used here is a good example of a Looping Tag Pair. It took the code we placed between its opening and closing Tags and actually processed it twice - once for each Entry.

This is a very powerful way to output information from multiple Entries, whether in a table, blog format, or even a simple list. For example:

<ul>
        {exp:channel:entries channel="news" limit="10"}
                <li>{title}</li>
        {/exp:channel:entries}
</ul>

Turning the Page

At this point, you might notice that our site’s homepage (http://example.com) is showing the same content as our News page (http://example.com/news). The reason for this is simple: remember checking the box next to Make the index template in this group your site’s home page? when you created the “news” template group? That made “news” your site’s default Template Group, the Template Group that is displayed as the homepage when no Template Group is specified in the URL.

Let’s change this by creating another Template Group and making it the new default.

  1. From the Template Manager click NEW next to Template Groups again.
  2. For Template Group Name, type “site”.
  3. Tick the Make the index template in this group your site’s home page? checkbox.
  4. Submit.

Now click the index Template of our new “site” Group to open the Template Editor. Let’s add this code:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
        <title>Home</title>
        <meta charset="utf-8">
</head>
<body>
        <h1>Home, Sweet Home.</h1>
        <p>Kick back and relax... you've made it home.</p>

        <h2>The Latest</h2>
        <p>Check out the <a href="{path='news'}">latest news</a>:</p>
        <ul>
                {exp:channel:entries channel="news" limit="10"}
                        <li><a href="{url_title_path='news'}">{title}</a></li>
                {/exp:channel:entries}
        </ul>
</body>
</html>

As usual, click Update and then View Rendered to see the results:

Homepage Template

There’s a bit more going on in this Template, so let’s take a closer look.

Linking to Templates and Entries

This line may have caught your attention:

<p>Check out the <a href="{path='news'}">latest news</a>:</p>

It contains the path variable, which creates a URL to a Template Group/Template. In this case we want to link to “news/index”, but since “index” is implied we can leave it off. The path variable is one of many Global Template Variables you can use. Global just means that you can access it from anywhere inside your Template; it doesn’t have to be inside a Tag Pair.

Then there’s this line, which you’ll notice is inside our Channel Entries Tag Pair:

<li><a href="{url_title_path='news'}">{title}</a></li>

url_title_path is one of the many variables you can use inside the Channel Entries Tag, in addition to the variables containing the content of your Channel Fields. It acts very similarly to the path variable we just discussed, but it also appends the Entry’s URL Title to the URL which lets us link directly to the entry, as you’ll see next.

A Dynamic Duo

Now follow the link to our “Hello, World!” Entry, which will look like http://example.com/news/hello-world thanks to url_title_path. You’ll be taken to our News Template Group. But wait, only one Entry is shown now!

Template Showing an Entry Dynamically

What you’re seeing here is the “dynamic” behavior of the Channel Entries Tag. By default the Tag will look for a valid URL Title in the current URL, and if one exists, show only that Entry in what’s known as “Single Entry” mode. This is very useful, since we didn’t have to create another template just to show our Entries all by themselves. In some cases, though, we may not want this to happen. A good example would be if we had a sidebar showing a list of recent Entries from various Channels, and we didn’t want that list influenced by what happens to be in the current URL. To disable this behavior, set the dynamic parameter to “no”:

{exp:channel:entries channel="news" limit="10" dynamic="no"}

Again, all of the Channel Entries’ available parameters and variables are detailed in its documentation page.

Go Forth and Conquer!

Congratulations! You’re ready to start bringing the awesome. Create Channels and Channel Fields to hold your content just the way you need. Then use Templates, Tags and your own markup, style and scripts to create flexible, dynamic websites quickly and easily on a platform that does exactly what you want it to do. Welcome to ExpressionEngine.

While you should read the User Guide in its entirety, here are some topics you might be interested in: